White and Panjabi

White/Panjabi
C-spine Instability

White & Panjabi criteria:
– anterior elements = 2
– posterior elements = 2
– sagittal translation > 3.5 mm or 20% of vertebra = 2
– sagittal rotation > 11o = 2
– positive stretch test = 2
– cord damage = 2
– root damage = 1
– abnormal disc narrowing = 1
– dangerous loads anticipated = 1

unstable if total score > 5

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