Enchondroma

Enchondroma

– benign tumor of mature hyaline cartilage, originating within the medullary cavities of long bones possibly from remnants of epiphyseal plate
– commonly occur in 2nd, 3rd & 4th decades
– typically in short tubular bones of hands & feet as well as femur & humerus
– Ollier’s disease (multiple enchondromatosis) – unilateral & 10-30% risk of transformation to chondrosarcoma
– Maffucci’s syndrome – multiple enchondromas with soft tissue angiomas (increased risk of transformation to chondrosarcoma – 50%?)

Signs & Symptoms:
– painless & usu diagnosed incidentally on xray

Xrays:
– well-defined with clear demarcation btw them & surrounding normal bone with punctate calcifications
– tend to expand bone & thin cortex

Histology:
– lobular & hypocellular with cartilaginous matrix containing chondrocytes located within lacunae
– cells have small uniform nuclei lacking atypia & the matrix may be focally calcified

Treatment:
– asymptomatic lesions can be observed & followed longitudinally
– symptomatic lesions should be biopsied then curetted & bone grafted

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